This subject CANNOT be opted in combination with Botany, Chemistry, Geography, Physics, and Zoology.

GEOLOGY
Total Marks - 200

PAPER I (Marks - 100)

1. General Geology: Earth as a planet. its origin and age. Internal structure of the earth and lithospheric plates. Internal and external geological processes such as earth-quakes, volcanism, weathering, erosion and deposition. Geomorphic cycles.

2. Structural Geology: Primary sedimentary structures. Mechanical properties of rocks. Description and classification of secondary structures. Structures in Metamorphic rocks. Orogeny and geosynclines in plate tectonic framework. Major tectonic features of the earth. Geodynamics of Pakistan.

3. Palaeontology: Fossils and their preservation. Morphology, evolution and geologic distribution of major invertebrate phylla. Micropalaeontology of Foraminifera. Vertebrate and plant fossils.

4. Stratigraphy: Stratigraphic nomenclature, and stratigraphic codes. Principles of correlation. Sedimentary basins of Pakistan and detailed stratigraphy of type sections.

5. Mineralogy: Chemical composition of the earth crust. Minerals. their physical and chemical properties. Space lattice. symmetry classes and crystal systems. Crystal optics. Atomic structure of crystals and X-Ray diffraction. Detailed study of important rock forming minerals.

6. Petrology: Origin and evolution of magma. Binary and Termary silicate systems. Description of important plutonic and volcanic associations. Sedimentary environments and processes. Petrography of major types of sedimentary rocks. Metamorphism. metamorphic zones and facies. Description of principle types of metamorphic rocks. Metamorphism and magmatism in relation to plate tectonics.

 

PAPER - II (Marks 100)

1. Economic Geology: Processes of formation of mineral deposits. Detailed study of metallic and non-metallic mineral deposits of Pakistan. Mineral based industries. Metallogeny of Pakistan.

2. Energy Resources: Constitution and kinds of coal. Geology of Pakistan coal fields. Origin, migration and accumulation of natural hydro carbons. Oil well drilling and drilling muds. Oil and gas fields of Pakistan. Origin and occurrence of radioactive minerals. Pakistan resource of atomic energy minerals. Geothermal energy: recovery and uses.

3. Engineering Geology: Geological factors in the construction of civil engineering projects. Geology of Dam Sites of Pakistan. Landslides and stability of slopes. Open and subsurface excavations. Construction materials and building stones. Site investigation and foundation analysis.

4. Hydrogeology: Groundwater occurrence and types of acquifers. Movement of groundwater. Salinity and waterlogging. Water resources of Pakistan.

5. Exploration Geology: Geological mapping and tradition prospecting methods. Photogeology and remote sensing mineral exploration. Disperson of trace elements and geochemical surveys. Geophysical techniques for prospecting of solid minerals, oil and water.

    SUGGESTED READINGS

      Title Author
    1

    The Evolving Earth

    Sawkins & others

    2

    Physical Geology

    Skinner & Porter

    3

    Structural Geology

    Park

    4

    Geodynamics of Pakistan

    Farah & Dejong

    5

    Invertibrate Palaentology

    Moore, Laliker & Fisher

    6

    Stratigraphy and Sedimentation

    Krumbein & Sloss

    7

    Stratigraphy of Pakistan

    Ibrahim Shah

    8

    Mineralogy

    Berry & Manson

    9

    Igneous & Metamorphic Petrology

    Turner & Verhoogen

    10

    Sedimentary Rocks

    Pettjohn

    11

    Mineral Directory of Pakistan

    Zaki Ahmed

    12

    Industrial Rocks and Minerals

    Lefond

    13

    Geology of Petroleum

    Leverson

    14

    Energy Resources

    Brown & Skipsey

    15

    Engineering Geology

    Beavis

    16

    Groundwater Hydrology

    Todd

    17

    Geological Prospecting

    Kreiter

    18

    Techniques in Mineral Exploration

    Reedman