This subject CANNOT be opted in combination with Botany, Chemistry, Geology, Physics, and Zoology.

GEOGRAPHY
Total Marks - 200

PAPER I (Marks - 100)

PHYSICAL AND GENERAL GEOGRAPHY

1. Elements of Weather and Climate

Insolation and Atmospheric Temperature. Global Radiation and Heat Balance. Atmospheric Pressure and Winds. Humidity and Precipitation. Air Masses. Fronts and Atmospheric Disturbances. Classification of Climate and Climatic Regions.

2. Landforms

Major landforms, Rocks : origin, formation and classification. Internal Structure of the Earth. Earth quakes and Volcancity. Weathering. Mass Wasting. Erosion and Deposition. Cycle of Erosion. Landforms produced by Underground and Ground Water. Wind and Glaciers.

3. Oceans

Continental Margins and the Sea Floor. Distribution of Temperature and Salinity. Movements of the Ocean Water: Waves. Currents and Tides.

4. Study of Maps

Types of maps: Topographical Maps, Aerial Photographs. Weather Maps. Map Projections: classification and choice of projections. Merits and Demerits of Cylindrical. Conical and Zenithal Projections. Diagrams. graphs and Distribution Maps based on Statistical Data.

 

PAPER - II (Marks - 100)

HUMAN ECONOMIC AND REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY

1. Human Geography

Man and his Habitat : Concepts of Environmentalism and Possibilism. World Population-distribution, structure and growth (natural increase and migration). World, Society and Culture: races, languages and religions. levels of education and welfare. Settlements—rural and urban. characteristics and problems of urban places. Population/Resource Regions.

2. Economic Geography

Economic Activities : primary, secondary and tertiary. Primary Activity: agricultural systems subsistence, intensive, extensive, mechanized and mixed farming. Production. Distribution and Trade of Major Cereal and Non-Cereal Crops. Forests and Fisheries. Power Resources. Major Industries iron and steel, textiles and chemical industries. Politico-economic Relationship between the More Developed and Less Developed countries.

3. Regional Geography

Economic and Social Regions of the world. Regional Geography of South Asia with special reference to Pakistan under the following heads: Resource base (Human Physical and Economic) Transport. Trade and International Relations.

    SUGGESTED READINGS

      Title Author
    1

    Physical Geography

    Lake, P.

    2

    Physical Geography

    Strahler, A.N.

    3

    An Introduction to Climate

    Trewartha, G.T.

    4

    An Introduction to Map work and Practical

    Bygott J.

    5

    Maps and Diagrams

    Monkhouse, F.J. & Wilkinson, H.R.

    6

    Human Geography

    Deblij, H.J.

    7

    Human Geography

    Bradford, M.G. & Kent, W.A.

    8

    Population Geography

    Jones, H.R.

    9

    Population Geography

    Clarke, J.I.

    10

    Economic Geography

    Pounds, N.

    11

    South Asia

    Jonson, B.L.C.

    12

    An Introduction to South Asia

    Farmer, B.H.

    13

    A Geography of Pakistan

    Kureshy, K.U.